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南京gre培训:分割包围逐步歼灭 雅思阅读难句分析之分割结构

时间:2018-07-25 17:14来源:南京文德教育 作者:南京文德教育 点击:
支解布局是一种修辞本领,在英语句子中,出格是在书面语中,较量常见。支解布局就是指把英语句子中原本属于一个整体的句子因素支解开,一部门留在句子的原本位置,另一部门阔别原本位置。 如:The best books are treasuries of good words,the golden tho

支解布局是一种修辞本领,在英语句子中,出格是在书面语中,较量常见。支解布局就是指把英语句子中原本属于一个整体的句子因素支解开,一部门留在句子的原本位置,另一部门阔别原本位置。

如:The best books are treasuries of good words,the golden thoughts,which,remembered and cherished,become our constant companions and comforters. 不丢脸出which become our constant companions and comforters本来是一个整体,被用作状语的已往分词remembered and cherished支解开。常见的支解布局情势有同位语或同位语从句与先行词的支解,定语或and定语从句与先行词的支解,主语与谓语的支解,谓语与宾语的支解。行使支解布局的目标是使语句布局均衡,停止头重脚轻,可能为了使表达的主题头脑越发突出精明,读起来更通顺流通。支解布局的存在声名白英语在布局情势和表达要领上的活跃性和机动性,但也造成了句子布局的错综伟大。对付支解布局,只有从布局上和语意上弄清它才气停止领略上的错误,英译汉时要把原本属于一个整体部门的意义译出。

如:An unusual present was given to him for his birthday,a book on ethics.过生日的时辰他获得了一件不通俗的礼品——一本关于伦理道德的书。(present 和a book被脱离)

再如:After Galileo's work the feeling grew that there were universal laws governing the motion of bodies and that these laws might apply to motion in the heavens as well as on earth.在伽利略著作之后,这样的熟悉增强了,即以为存在着支配物体行为的广泛纪律,这些纪律不只支配着地球上的也支配着天体上的物体的行为。(the feeling和 that从句被脱离)

另外,尚有定语(或定语从句)与个中心词被脱离,某些词语与其所要求的介词被脱离,动词与其宾语被脱离,介词与其宾语被脱离等。总之,英语的脱离应遵循尾重原则(该当把长而伟大的因素放在句末,从而使布局均衡平均,以停止主语部门太长,谓语部门太短)和句尾信息核心原则(把新信息,即语义重点放在句子末端)。阅读时要留意把原本属于一个整体的各部门找出来。

1. Such a viewpoint,particularly prominent in the developing countries,is reinforced by the widely-held belief that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is endangering the survival of mankind.

第一层:Such a viewpoint,主 particularly prominent in the developing 定 countries,is 系 reinforced 表 by the widely-held belief 状 that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is end- 同位语从句 angering the survival of mankind.

第二层:(同位语从句)that 引 it 形主 is not 系 the peaceful application 夸大主语 of nuclear energy 定 that 引 is endangering 谓 the survival 宾 of mankind. 定

要点 本句骨干为Such a viewpoint…… is reinforced by the widely-held belief;形容词短语particularly prominent in the developing countries,作为插入语修饰viewpoint,将主语和谓语脱离开来;介词短语by the widely-held belief是被动语态reinforced的举动主体;that it is……mankind是belief的同位语从句,这里还含有一个夸大句式,即it is not the peaceful application……that is endangering……。

译文 这种在成长中国度显得尤为突出的概念被一种普及持有的信心所增强,即并非僻静操作核能正危害着人类的保留。

2. No girl should marry a man whose last name has the same initial as hers,for,as the rhyme goes,Change the name but not the letter,marry for worse instead of better.

第一层:No girl 主 should marry 谓 a man 宾 whose last name has the same initial as hers,定语从句 for,as the rhyme goes,Change 状语从句 the name but not the letter,marry for worse instead of better.

第二层:(定语从句)whose 引 last name 主 has 谓 the same initial 宾 as hers 定

(状语从句)for,引 as the rhyme goes,状 Change 谓 the name 宾 but 连 not the letter,宾 marry 谓 for worse instead of better.状

要点 这是个主从复合句。for是毗连词,引导状语从句。as the rhyme goes是插入语,插在for和它引导的从句之间,造成for和它引导的从句的疏散,南京文德教育,翻译时,可译成一个主谓布局。

译文 女人不应嫁给与本身的姓的首字母沟通的人,由于正如一首儿歌所说:改姓不改首字母,婚后必将受其苦。

3. Nor,if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect,is management to be blamed for discriminating against the odd balls among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who work well with the team.

要点 否认词nor放在句首时,主谓倒装。is放到了主语management前。同时,if引导的前提状语从句置于nor与句子的其他因素之间,造成了句子的盘据状态。前提状语从句中as desirable…… as the writing……可视为同级较量布局。句中who引导的定语从句修饰先行词thinkers,可回收合译的要领翻译。be blamed for为牢靠短语,意为“因…而受指责”。in favor of ……在句中做状语。

译文 若是像学术论文反应的那样,科学家们祈望看到与某种尺度模式切合的纪律性和同等性。那么,假如打点者们小看研究者中的“奇人”,而喜好擅长相助的较通例思想的人,这也是无可指责的。

4. I have discovered,as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress,that abandoning the doctrine of juggling your life,and making the alternative move into downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

要点 本句中as perhaps Kelsey will……引导的方法状语从句放到了主句的谓语动词discovered与that引导的宾语从句之间,从而造成动宾之间的支解。as引导的从句中省略了谓语动词discover,是为了停止一再。宾语从句中主语为abandoning……and making……并列的动名词短语;谓语为bring sth with sth布局,只是因宾语过长,而把with短语提前了。

译文 我觉察,放弃那种“日夜操劳的糊口”信心而选择“放慢糊口的节拍”会带来比款子和社会职位更大的回报。凯尔西在恒久担当庞大压力后,从惹人注目标《女性》杂志编辑部退出之后,生怕她也将与我有同样的感受。

5. Such an outcome,if it happens,could cause a political controversy;or it could lead to more power being transferred to the EU in the worst possible circumstances,namely when the Union is deeply unpopular.

要点 这是个复合句。前提从句由于太短,置于主句的主谓之间,造成句子盘据,翻译时应将从句提到句首。namely when the……unpopular是一个状语从句,用来表明the worst possible circumstances.the EU:the European Union,欧盟。

译文 这种功效一旦发生,就也许引起政治上的争吵;在最糟糕的环境下,即在欧盟很不得民气的时辰,也也许使更多的权力落到欧盟手中。

6. That fact,let alone the current division between the 11 euro countries and the four,led by Britain,that have not joined,is likely to mean that the Union should become a multi-system entity,with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things.

要点 句子的骨干布局是That fact…… is likely to mean that……。with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things是“with +复合布局”情势,暗示陪伴状态。短语let alone……not joined置于主谓之间,造成句子盘据,翻译时应将其还原,放在最后。分词短语led by Britain和定语从句that have not joined都修饰the four.euro:欧元。multi-:前缀,暗示“多…的”,如mutilateral,多边的:multiple,多个的。

译文 这一究竟也许意味着欧盟将成为一个多系统的实体,个中一些国度对每一件事都暗示拥护,而另一些则不尽然;更不消说以英国为首的尚未插手欧洲同一钱币系统的四国和已经 插手这一系统的十一个欧元国度之间今朝已存在的分歧了。

7. This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

要点 该句的骨干布局是This trend began during the Second World War,when……。when引导定语从句,修饰the Second World War.that the specific……detail是conclusion的同位语从句,在该从句中,主语是 the specific demands of its scientific establishment,that a government wants to make是 demands的定语从句。该定语从句放在其先行词 demands和of介词短语之间,造成句子的盘据。翻译时,可把被盘据的部门还原。

译文 这种趋势始于第二次天下大战时代,其时一些国度的当局得出这样的结论:当局要向科研机构提出的详细要求凡是是无法细致预见的。

8. Observations were made of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade.

要点 整个of短语作observations的定语,相等于Observations of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade were made.由于定语太长,以是将其置于动词之后,以停止句子头重脚轻。这样就造成了句子的盘据,翻译时应将被盘据的部门还原。preschool:学前的。

译文 人们对孩子们在学前班和小学一年级开始时和竣事时的环境都曾举办过调查。

9. Whether to use tests,other kinds of information,or both in a particular situation depends,therefore,upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.

要点 这是一个简朴句。Whether to……situation是本句的主语,depends是谓语动词,两个upon后头是宾语。availability在句中是指“测试和信息轻易获得或找到”。therefore是副词,插在depends 和upon……之间,造成它们在布局上的盘据。翻译时,可把therefore提到句首。

译文 因此,毕竟是回收测试照旧其他种类的信息,或是在某一特定环境下两者并用,须凭从有关相对效度的履历中得出的证据而定,也取决于诸如用度和有无回收的也许性等身分。

10. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of having it all,preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the page of She magazine,into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.

要点 该句的骨干布局是I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of having it all……into a woman……。preached by……magazine是已往分词短语,作the philosophy of having it all的定语,插在from……into之中,造成了句子的盘据。翻译时,可把分词短语译成一个分句,其他照原文次序翻译。

译文 我从一个“尽心全力”的糊口哲学——在已往七年里林达·凯尔西一向在《女性》杂志宣扬这种糊口方法——的起劲建议者,一改而成为随遇而安的姑娘。

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